Section 83

Subsection 83(2) - Capital dividend

Cases

2529-1915 Québec Inc. v. Canada, 2009 DTC 5023 [at 5585], 2008 FCA 398

capital dividend elections for distributions of what should have been known to be income-account gains were shams

Overview of facts. The two individual taxpayers devised a scheme to: generate artificial capital gains of $110 million in some home-grown companies; pay the supposedly resulting capital dividend accounts (CDAs) of $55 million to another company (1915); generate artificial capital losses in the home-grown companies to offset their capital gains; effectively sell negotiated portions of the CDA to 3rd-party purchasers by having them subscribe for preferred shares at a 21% premium to their redemption amount with the shares' redemption amounts effectively being flowed out to the 3rd parties as purported capital dividends; and then pocketing such subscription "premiums" as capital dividends paid out to them. Readers who are satisfied with this overview may skip the next three paragraphs.

Artificial generation of $55M CDA in home-grown companies. A stack of 13 wholly-owned corporations was formed (i.e., so that the 1st to 12th subsidiary were direct or indirect subsidiaries of the 13th corporation), with the proceeds of a daylight loan to the first subsidiary being used by it to subscribe for $10 million of preferred shares of its immediate parent (the second subsidiary), and so on up the chain so that the 12th subsidiary subscribed for preferred shares of the 13th corporation. The 2nd subsidiary the declared a stock dividend on the preferred shares held by the 1st subsidiary consisting of "gainmaking" preferred shares with a redemption amount of $10 million and a nominal adjusted cost base, and so on up the chain so that 12 of the 13 subsidiaries were holders of gainmaking shares. The 2nd subsidiary then sold its gainmaking shares to the 1st subsidiary in consideration for a $10 million demand promissory note of the 1st subsidiary (realizing a capital gain of approximately $10 million), and so on up the chain so that 12 of the 13 subsidiaries realized total gains of approximately $110 million and an addition to their capital dividend accounts of approximately $55 million. The 13th subsidiary paid a cash dividend of $10 million to the 1st subsidiary in order that it could repay its daylight loan. They then increased the par value of the gainmaking shares in their capital (now all held by the 1st subsidiary) resulting in s. 84(1) deemed dividends totalling approximately $55 million being received by the 1st subsidiary, and a purported addition to its CDA of the same amount. After they had thus paid out their CDAs, the subsidiaries offset the gains they had realized on the gainmaking shares by selling their preferred shares to one of the individual taxpayers (Faraggi) for their nominal value.

Transfer of $55M CDA to 1915. One of the corporate taxpayers (1915) subscribed for preferred shares of the 1st subsidiary and received a purported capital dividend of approximately $55 million thereon.

"Sale" by 1915 of CDA and pocketing of 21% "commission" by individual taxpayers. At various subsequent junctures, 1915 effectively transferred negotiated portions of its CDA to 3rd-party corporations. These corporations subscribed to different classes of preferred shares of 1915 at a premium of $210 per each $1,000 redemption amount of preferred share and received a dividend (designated to be a capital dividend) of approximately $1,000 per share on those shares (thereby reducing their redemption amounts to a nominal amount). The two individual taxpayers effectively received these premiums from 1915 as capital dividends on preferred shares.

Gains generated on income account. After finding that the daylight loan used in the transactions and the promissory notes issued in the transactions issued in the transactions generating capital gains were not shams, and finding that the share premiums generated by 1915 were business income, Noël JA found that the "gainmaking" shares which were acquired for the purpose of their immediate resale so as to give rise to such gains were acquired on income account, given that "property acquired for resale is held on account of revenue" (para. 73).

Elections were shams. Given that these shares were acquired on income account, the subsidiaries in making capital capital dividend elections to flow out their CDAs to 1915 were making a misrepresentation which rendered such elections shams, and similarly the subsequent capital dividend elections by 1915 also were shams.

Locations of other summaries Wordcount
Tax Topics - General Concepts - Sham capital dividend elections for distributions of what should have been known to be income-account gains were shams 245
Tax Topics - General Concepts - Tax Avoidance capital dividend elections for distributions of what should have been known to be income-account gains were shams 245
Tax Topics - Income Tax Act - Section 248 - Subsection 248(1) - Business shares premiums received for marketing tax scheme were business income 196
Tax Topics - Income Tax Act - Section 9 - Capital Gain vs. Profit - Shares shares acquired for immediate resale as part of capital dividend account generation scheme were on income account 160
Tax Topics - Income Tax Act - Section 9 - Exempt Receipts/Business shares premiums received for marketing tax scheme were business income 204

Dale v. Canada, 97 DTC 5252 (FCA)

At the time of a purported capital dividend on preference shares, the authorized capital of the corporation had not yet been amended to include preference shares. However, in a subsequent taxation year, an order of the Nova Scotia Supreme Court was obtained that the authorized share capital and issued share capital of the corporation should be retroactively amended to reflect the issuance of the preference shares prior to the dividend. Accordingly, the capital dividend was valid.

Locations of other summaries Wordcount
Tax Topics - General Concepts - Effective Date retroactive superior court order has retroactive effect for tax purposes 162
Tax Topics - General Concepts - Rectification & Rescission retroactive effect of nunc pro tunc rectification order 167
Tax Topics - Income Tax Act - Section 248 - Subsection 248(1) - Dividend 76
Tax Topics - Income Tax Act - Section 85 - Subsection 85(1) retroactive validation by Superior Court of preference share issuance was effective for s. 85 purposes 165
Tax Topics - Statutory Interpretation - Provincial Law 134

Administrative Policy

S3-F2-C1 - Capital Dividends

Full dividend

1.19 An election to pay a capital dividend should be filed on Form T2054 by the earlier of:

  • the day on which the dividend becomes payable; and
  • the first day on which any part of the dividend is paid.

For this purpose, a dividend becomes payable on the day stipulated by the resolution of the directors of the corporation declaring the dividend. Because an election must be made on the full amount of the dividend, this means it may not specify that the dividend is payable partly from the corporation’s CDA and partly from another source.

Shareholder on record date

1.20 The definition of shareholder in subsection 248(1) includes a “person entitled to receive payment of a dividend”. This could be relevant where a dividend, in respect of which an election is to be made under subsection 83(2), is declared to be payable by a corporation on a particular payment date to shareholders of record at the end of an earlier specified date. Provided the corporation elects to have the provisions of subsection 83(2) apply to the full amount of the dividend, a person that was a shareholder of record at the end of the earlier specified date will be entitled to the treatment given to a dividend to which subsection 83(2) applies even if they no longer own the share(s) on the date of payment.

4 January 2012 External T.I. 2011-0414731E5 F - Interaction between 84.1 and 83(2) ITA

no s. 83(2) election available for s. 84.1(1)(b) deemed dividend paid to non-shareholder

CRA does not plan to adopt an administrative position which would allow a private corporation to make a s. 83(2) election with respect to a dividend deemed to be paid by it under s. 84.1(1)(b) to a person who is not already a shareholder of the corporation.

Locations of other summaries Wordcount
Tax Topics - Income Tax Act - Section 84 - Subsection 84(7) s. 84(7) might contradict CRA position that no s. 83(2) election on s. 84.1 dividend to non-shareholder 93

26 September 2002 T.I. 2002012895

A dividend deemed to be paid by s. 84.1(1)(b) does not meet the requirement in s. 83(2) that the dividend become payable to shareholders of any class of shares of a corporation's capital stock. Accordingly, the s. 83(2) election may not be made in respect of the deemed dividend.

91 C.R. - Q.23

Where a corporation redeems shares owned by one shareholder, it may pay the balance of its capital dividend account to that one shareholder.

29 August 1991 T.I. (Tax Window, No. 8, p. 21, ¶1423)

No provision permits a late election.

25 June 1990 Memorandum (November 1990 Access Letter, ¶1523)

"There is no provision in sections 83 and 184 for amending an already filed election, for filing an amended election, for later substituting another election for an already-filed election, for apportioning or adjusting the amount of an excessive election made thereunder or for revoking an election already made thereunder". Furthermore, a resolution providing that the corporation's shareholders shall repay any amount by which a purported capital dividend exceeds the capital dividend account might nullify the s. 83(2) election.

Articles

Anthony Strawson, Timothy P. Kirby, "Vendor Planning for Private Corporations: Select Issues", 2017 Conference Report, (Canadian Tax Foundation), 11:1-28

Ability to use s. 84.1 deemed dividend as capital dividend (p. 11:22)

[l]n a 2002 technical interpretation, the CRA found that a purchaser corporation is unable to elect under subsection 83(2) with respect to a dividend that it is deemed to have been paid pursuant to paragraph 84.1(1)(b). [fn 54: … 2002-0128955]… In our view, [this] interpretation is incorrect when the transferor already owns shares of the corporation at the time of the transfer because subsection 84(7) would deem the dividend to be payable and, through such prior share ownership, the transferor would clearly be a shareholder of the corporation. …

[2006-0183851E5] found that such a deemed dividend may properly be the subject of an election under subsection 83(2), provided that the recipient of the deemed dividend under section 84.1 owns shares of any class of shares of the capital stock of the payer corporation immediately before the dividend is deemed to be paid or payable.

Subsection 83(2.1) - Idem [Capital dividend]

Cases

Groupe Honco Inc. v. Canada, 2014 DTC 5006, 2013 FCA 128, aff'g 2013 DTC 1032 [at 149], 2012 TCC 305, infra

two or three main purposes

Trudel JA stated (at para. 24) that:

[C]ounsel for the appellants is ignoring the purpose and spirit of subsection 83(2.1) of the Act in attempting to persuade us that the word "main" does not leave open the possibility of having two or three motivations that explain a transaction or series of transactions.

An argument that the exception in s. 83(2.1) applied was not raised with sufficient notice.

Words and Phrases
one of the main purposes
Locations of other summaries Wordcount
Tax Topics - Income Tax Act - Section 248 - Subsection 248(10) sometimes elapsed time will be relevant to series determination 186

See Also

Travel Document Service & Ladbroke Group International v Revenue & Customs (Rev 1), [2018] EWCA Civ 549

“main” has a connotation of importance

A British taxpayer (TDS) used a total return swap to cause its share investment in a subsidiary (LGI) to be deemed to be a loan. However, its hoped-for tax benefit was denied by an anti-avoidance provision that applied if “one of the main purposes” for being a party to a loan relationship was to secure relief from tax. In this regard, TDS emphasized that it had held its TDS shares long before entering into the swap and a related novation contract. In rejecting this contention, Lord Justice Newey stated (at para. 46):

Had the tax advantage in view been small, there might have been scope for argument as to whether an intention to use the shares to achieve it implied that obtaining the advantage was now a main purpose of holding the shares. In fact, however, the hoped-for gain was large both in absolute terms (more than £70 million) and relative to the apparent value of TDS (some £280 million).

After so concluding against TDL, Lord Justice Newey stated (at para. 48):

I would add, however, that I do not accept that, as was submitted by Mr Ghosh [for HMRC], "main" … means "more than trivial". A "main" purpose will always be a "more than trivial" one, but the converse is not the case. A purpose can be "more than trivial" without being a "main" purpose. "Main" has a connotation of importance.

Locations of other summaries Wordcount
Tax Topics - Statutory Interpretation - Interpretation/Definition Provisions where an anti-avoidance provision’s application depended on the purpose of being a creditor, that purpose was the one for holding shares which were a deemed loan 355

Groupe Honco Inc v. The Queen, 2013 DTC 1032 [at 149], 2012 TCC 305, aff'd 2013 FCA 128, supra

accessing CDA one of main purposes

On January 13, 1999, a newly-incorporated corporation ("New Supervac") was leased the assets of an unrelated corporation ("Old Supervac"), coupled with an option to acquire those assets and the right to also acquire all the shares of Old Supervac. The business was restored to profitability in short order, and New Supervac then acquired the assets on October 7, 1999, acquired the Old Supervac shares on November 17, 1999 and amalgamated with it on January 1, 2001. The amalgamated New Supervac paid a capital dividend in the fall of 2004 to one of the taxpayers (with such capital dividend being further distributed), and the Minister applied s. 83(2.1) to the capital dividends.

Boyle J accepted the taxpayers' evidence that the reasons for acquiring Old Supervac included accessing its losses and avoiding the necessity to obtain a fresh safety certification for one of its assets. However, he found that the taxpayer had not rebutted the reasonable inference that accessing Old Supervac's capital dividend account was also one of the main purposes of the series of transactions culminating in the purported capital dividend, noting that the taxpayer's evidence that it and its professional advisors had been oblivious to the capital dividend account at the time of acquisition was "surprising" (para. 32), and also noting that neither Old Supervac's former advisors nor the taxpayers' lawyer who structured the transactions had been called to testify. The taxpayer's appeal was dismissed.

Barclays Mercantile Industrial Finance Ltd. v. Melluish, [1990] BTC 209 (Ch. D.)

main purpose was to make a profit, not take deduction

The taxpayer ("BMI") acquired a film from a non-resident corporation ("WBI"), leased it to another corporation at a return that yielded 2.16% per annum on its expenditure, and claimed a 100% first-year capital allowance for the amount of the expenditure (on the basis that the film qualified as "plant"). S.3(1)(c) of Schedule 8 to the Finance Act 1971 denied the deduction of the allowance if it appeared with respect to the purchase of the plant "that the sole or main benefit which ... might have been expected to accrue to the parties ... was the obtaining of an allowance". In finding that this anti-avoidance provision did not apply, Vinelott J. accepted (at pp. 239-240) a submission that:

"The main object of WBI in selling the film to BMI was to recover the cost of making the film while ensuring that the film be distributed by the WBI organisation. The main object of BMI was to make profit by acquiring and leasing the plant. It is probable that BMI would not have been able to offer a leaseback to a company in the WBI organization at an acceptable rent unless it could obtain a capital allowance and unless it had spare capacity in the group sufficient to absorb it. But it does not follow that BMI's object was to obtain an allowance; BMI's object and purpose was to make a profit on a purchase and lease of the plant.

and stated (at p. 240) that the provisions was "aimed at artificial transactions designed wholly or primarily at creating a tax allowance".

Words and Phrases
main object

Administrative Policy

9 November 2017 External T.I. 2017-0704221E5 - Capital Dividend Account

s. 83(2.1) does not apply to deny capital dividends sourced from life insurance proceeds

Canco was the owner and beneficiary of a life insurance policy, with an adjusted cost basis of nil, on the life of its sole shareholder, Mr. X. Following the receipt of $500,000 under the policy on Mr. X’s death, Canco reduced an outstanding loan by $200,000 and paid a $250,000 capital dividend to the estate, retaining the balance of $50,000 in working capital. The estate sold the Canco shares to Ms Y, an unrelated Canadian resident. Alternatively, Mr. X owned Canco indirectly through Holdco, so that the estate of Mr. X sold Holdco to Ms Y. Could Ms Y eventually receive a capital dividend from the CDA balance of either Canco or Holdco? CRA responded:

[T]he CDA balance of Canco would not consist of amounts described in paragraphs 83(2.2)(a) to (d) (such CDA balance being only attributable to an insurance policy proceeds in this scenario). Consequently, subsection 83(2.1) would not apply to deem a capital dividend received by Ms Y … to be a taxable dividend.

After indicating that s. 83(2.1) also would not apply in the Holdco scenario, CRA stated:

Finally, subsection 83(2.3) provides that subsection 83(2.1) will not apply to a capital dividend paid by a corporation in order to distribute life insurance proceeds which were received by it and included in its capital dividend account as a consequence of the death of a person. Subsection 83(2.1) does not apply where a capital dividend funded by life insurance proceeds is paid to an individual either directly or through a holding corporation by reason of the exception provided in paragraph 83(2.2)(a).

…Thus, assuming that Canco’s assets consist only of $50,000 cash which is funded by life insurance proceeds, the provision 83(2.3) could apply to a capital dividend equal to this amount.

2016 Ruling 2015-0624611R3 - Capital Dividend Account

transactions to rectify an overlooked life insurance policy of an amalgamated target

An estate sold a private company (Canco 1) to a third party purchaser, which promptly amalgamated with Canco 1. To the surprise of the estate, the estate beneficiary (the deceased's widow) then received a cheque under a policy under which Canco 1 had been the beneficiary, which she deposited in an account in Canco 1's name.

Since additions to the capital dividend account for life insurance proceeds occur on a received rather than receivable basis, the cheque was an addition to the CDA of Amalco rather than of Canco 1. The Amalco shareholders were willing to have Amalco pay a capital dividend to them equal to the insurance proceeds and to pay those proceeds over to the widow net of Amalco’s transaction costs, provided that CRA first ruled that the Policy proceeds increased Amalco's CDA, and that s. 83(2.1) would not apply to the dividend (given the purchaser not being aware of the Policy).

Locations of other summaries Wordcount
Tax Topics - Income Tax Act - Section 89 - Subsection 89(1) - Capital Dividend Account - Paragraph (d) proceeds of predecessor’s policy added to Amalco’s CDA when received 170

S3-F2-C1 - Capital Dividends

Main reason test

1.95 ... Groupe Honco...confirmed that a person can have more than one main reason for the acquisition of shares. If subsection 83(2.1) is not to apply, it must be shown that none of those main reasons is the receipt of a capital dividend.

Asymmetrical application

1.96 Where subsection 83(2.1) applies, the dividend will be deemed to be received by the shareholder as a taxable dividend that will be included in the shareholder’s income. If the dividend recipient is a corporation it will not be included in computing that recipient corporation’s CDA. However, the amount elected for the purposes of subsection 83(2) will be a capital dividend for the purpose of determining any liability of the payor corporation for Part III tax in respect of an excessive election and for the purpose of computing the payor corporation’s CDA balance.

Words and Phrases
main reason

11 January 1994 T.I. 933423 (C.T.O. "CDA Anti-Avoidance Rules")

Where the shares of a corporation ("Opco") having a capital dividend account are transferred by a related individual to a newly-incorporated holding corporation (which then receives a capital dividend from Opco), RC generally will look to the main purpose for the original acquisition by the individual of the Opco shares in making the determination under s. 83(2.1).

Locations of other summaries Wordcount
Tax Topics - Income Tax Act - Section 83 - Subsection 83(2.4) 70

Articles

Michael McGowan, "HMRC v Lloyds Bank Leasing (No 1) Ltd: the troublesome increase in the scope of the "sole or main object" test", [2015] British Tax Review, No.5 2015 (Thomson Reuters (Professional) UK Limited), p. 649

structured transactions with tax reduction as one of main objects

Following the Lloyd Bank decisions ([2014] EWCA Civ 1062, remitted to [2015] UKFTT 401) dealing with an anti-avoidance provision which was engaged if the obtaining of a writing-down allowance of 25% was “one of the main objects" of ship-leasing transactions, a U.K. writer has inferred that

the courts have now made it difficult for taxpayers to show that tax is not "a main object/purpose" in any situation where they have taken tax advice, and elected to adopt a more rather than less tax-efficient structure for a commercial transaction.

Locations of other summaries Wordcount
Tax Topics - General Concepts - Purpose/Intention 644

Nathan Boidman, Canadian Tax Highlights, Vol. 22, No. 5, May 2014, p. 9.

Prevalence of "one of the main purposes" test (p. 9)

The phrase "one of the main purposes" (or "one of the main reasons," "one of the main objectives," or "one of the principal purposes") appears in the Act at least 79 times, in the 2014 budget's proposed anti-treaty-shopping rules, and more and more often in Canada's tax treaties.

Groupe Honco finding of multiple "main" purposes (pp. 9-10)

In Groupe Honco (…2013 FCA 128)…[t]he FCA said, "The phrase 'one of the main purposes' is unambiguous and implies that a taxpayer may have more than one main motive in acquiring shares."

U.K. reading out of "one of" (p.10)

Jonathan Schwarz, the author of Schwarz on Tax Treaties, 3d ed. (Wolters Kluwer), described the phrase, which appeared in 1992 in UK tax treaties and earlier in domestic UK tax law, as a phrase of uncertain meaning that the UK courts have effectively sidestepped by reading out the words "one of." …

(The UK decisions referred to are Prudential Plc v. Revenue & Customs, [2007] UKSPC 636; IRC v. Trustees of the SEMA Group Pensions Scheme, [2002] STC 276 (Ch. D); IRC v. Kleinwort Benson Ltd. [1969] 2 Ch. 221; and AH Field (Holdings) Ltd. v. Revenue & Customs, [2012] UKFTT 104 (TC).)

U.K. approach is better (p.10)

The approach of the UK courts (to perhaps omit the words "one of" and turn the phrase into a simple "main purpose" test) and of the Canadian courts, as in Honco (to effectively drop the word "main" and make the phrase into a "one of the purposes" test), both attest to the uncertainty of the language. The better interpretation appears to be the one adopted by the UK courts: a search for the transaction's driving purpose or reason that represents the single "main" purpose or reason.

Subsection 83(2.2)

Administrative Policy

S3-F2-C1 - Capital Dividends

Overview

1.97 ...Subsection 83(2.2) provides that the anti-avoidance rule will not apply to a capital dividend paid to an individual if, immediately before the dividend became payable, all or substantially all of the payor corporation’s CDA consisted of amounts other than those described in paragraphs 83(2.2)(a) to (d).

Subsection 83(2.3)

Administrative Policy

S3-F2-C1 - Capital Dividends

Overview

1.97 ...Subsection 83(2.3) provides that the anti-avoidance rule will not apply to capital dividends paid by a corporation where it is reasonable to consider that the purpose for paying the dividend was to distribute net life insurance proceeds which were received due to death.

Subsection 83(2.4) - Idem [Where s. (2.1) does not apply]

Administrative Policy

S3-F2-C1 - Capital Dividends

Overview

1.97 ... Subsection 83(2.4) provides that the anti-avoidance rule will not apply to a capital dividend paid to a related corporation (determined as if paragraph 251(5)(b) did not apply) if all or substantially all of the payor corporation’s CDA consisted of amounts other than those described in paragraphs 83(2.4)(a) to (e).

11 January 1994 T.I. 933423 (C.T.O. "CDA Anti-Avoidance Rules")

Where an individual transfers shares in a related corporation having a capital dividend account to a newly-incorporated holding corporation in exchange for shares of the holding corporation, and the corporation pays a capital dividend to the new holding corporation, it would appear that the capital dividend would not be exempted by s. 83(2.4)(b) because the corporation's capital dividend account would have arisen before it became related to the holding corporation.

Locations of other summaries Wordcount
Tax Topics - Income Tax Act - Section 83 - Subsection 83(2.1) 56

Subsection 83(3)

Administrative Policy

11 October 2019 APFF Roundtable Q. 13, 2019-0812721C6 F - Late-Filed CDA Election

directors can authorize a late capital dividend election after the dividend declaration

Must the advance authorization (described in s. 83(3)(c)) by the directors be made before the declaration of the dividend or merely before the late election? CRA responded:

The condition set out in paragraph 83(3)(c) is satisfied when the directors or other person or persons legally entitled to administer the affairs of the corporation have, before the time the election is made, authorized the election to be made.

CRA then referred to Folio S3-F2-C1, para. 1.21.

30 August 2017 External T.I. 2017-0718311E5 F - Capital dividend account

a late s. 83(3) election causes a retroactive increase to the CDA of the corporate recipient of the dividend

On January 1, Corporation A paid a capital dividend of $40,000 to its sole shareholder, Corporation B, but did not make a late capital dividend election until September 1. On January 2, Corporation B paid a capital dividend of $40,000 to its sole shareholder, Mr. B, but did not make a late capital dividend election until September 1. Could Corporation B include in its capital dividend account, on January 2, the $40,000 dividend it received out of Company A's capital dividend account?

After noting that the effect of s. 83(3) was that “the shareholder could add the dividend received to the shareholder’s capital dividend account at the time of receipt of the dividend,” CRA further noted that as Corporation A had made a valid late election “the election would be deemed to have been made on January 1,” so that “starting January 1, Corporation B could add the $40,000 dividend amount to its capital dividend account. Similarly:

On September 1, Corporation B filed Form T2054 and made a late election in accordance with the terms of subsection 83(3), including, inter alia, the payment of the penalty. Mr. B thereby received on January 2 a capital dividend that would not be required to be included in computing his income.

Locations of other summaries Wordcount
Tax Topics - Income Tax Act - Section 89 - Subsection 89(1) - Capital Dividend Account - Paragraph (b) late capital dividend election retroactively affects CDA of dividend recipient 39

S3-F2-C1 - Capital Dividends

90-day limit

1.23 The late filing provisions described in ¶1.21 cease to be available for a particular dividend if a taxpayer does not comply with a written request from the Minister to make a late-filed election for that dividend within 90 days from the date of service of the request.