Burton – Federal Court of Australia finds that a foreign tax credit was reduced by ½ when only ½ of a capital gain was brought into income
An Australian-resident individual was taxed at the 15% long-term U.S. capital gains rate on his gains on the disposal of U.S. oil and gas drilling rights. For Australian purposes a 50% discount was applied to the capital gain before imposing tax at a rate of around 45% on it. The Australian foreign tax credit (FITO) provision provided a credit for foreign income tax “if you paid it in respect of an amount that is all or part of an amount included in your assessable income for the year.” The Commissioner successfully took the position that as only half of the U.S. gain had been included in the individual’s income, he was entitled to the FITO for only half of the U.S. tax.
Art. 22(2) of the Australia-U.S. Convention provided that U.S. tax “shall be allowed as a credit against Australian tax payable in respect of the income” but went on to provide that: “Subject to these general principles, the credit shall be in accordance with the provisions and subject to the limitations of the law of Australia as that law may be in force from time to time.”
In finding that Art. 22(2) did not help the taxpayer, McKerracher J stated:
Under Australian law, the only income forming part of the assessable income is 50% of the capital gain on which tax is paid in the US. Where Art 22(2) refers to Australian tax payable in respect of income, the income is only 50% of the capital gain.
Secondly, the word ‘all’ does not appear before the words ‘United States tax paid’ in the first line of Art 22(2). The Article does not suggest that a credit is allowed against Australian tax payable for the whole amount of the US tax paid. … It does not prescribe how much is to be allowed as a credit. The credit is subject to the provisions and limitations of Australian law.
The same issue could arise in Canada but has not given the CRA approach of allowing the U.S. tax on 100% of the gain to be taken into account in computing the Canadian foreign tax credit on the Canadian taxable capital gain (see. e.g., Folio S5-F2-C1, para. 1.89).